Vascular surgery is a surgical specialty involving the treatment of diseases of the arterties and veins, except for those in the heart and brain. In addition to full reconstructive surgery, it also includes minimally invasive techniques involving the use of catheters as well as ongoing therapies. It combined techniques used in general and cardiac surgery with techniques adapted from interventional radiology.
The specialty was developed in the 1970s, but has radically improved since the 1990s. As a result, the techniques now used in this specialty are generally distinct from those used in other forms of surgery. In the United States, a vascular surgeon has usually served a 5 year residency program after a surgical internship.