In fertile women, the uterus readies itself for the implantation of a fertilized ovum about once every month. If the ovum is not fertilized, the cells of the uterus are shed in menstruation.
Cancer of the uterus is common. As such, many women who have passed through menopause have their uterus removed - a hysterectomy. However, this operation is less common now than it has been in previous decades as drug therapies also have the effect of lowering the risk of developing cancer.