Tubal ligation is a medical procedure that results in permanent sterilization of a woman. It consists of severing both fallopian tubes and then either sealing or tying off the ends. Once a fairly invasive procedure, it is now performed laproscopically and is minimally invasive, although it still requires general anesthesia. It has no long term side effects and, for this reason, is often preferred to the pill for women who no longer want children, although it is more costly, particularly in the short term. It also poses some surgial mortality risk (particularly compared to a vasectomy), although it is very low.
The operation can now be reversed with microsurgery.