Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, accounting for well over 90% of all cases. It originates from the very small cells in the kidney that carry urine. The prognosis is good if the cancer is limited well within the boundaries of the kidney, but is much worse if the cancer has spread to other kidney tissues or beyond the kidney. Standard treatment is removal of the entire kidney. If it has mestasticized, radiation therapy and chemotherapy can be useful. ,
The most common symptoms are blood in the urine, pain in the area of the kidney, weight loss, fever, high blood pressure, night sweats and malaise. It is also associated with numerous paraneoplastic syndromes.
Obesity, high blood pressure and smoking are risk factors for the disease. It can also be caused by exposure to some chemicals, typically in a work environment. It is suspected that long term use of NSAIDs may also put people at risk. People with a family history of the disease have about 2-4 times the risk of the rest of the population. Other chronic medical conditions are also known to be risk factors.