The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine is a faculty of medicine attached to Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. It was founded in 1893. All medical education in the United States is now based on the model established at Johns Hopkins since its foundation.
Prior to the establishment of JHUSM, medical education in the United States was scattershot, and many doctors had no formal medical education at all, having learned to practice from other physicians or surgeons. What medical schools that did exist were little better than trade schools, with minimal academic requirements (usually no more than a high school diploma) and a mostly part-time faculty. As a result, many students did not complete their studies, but went on to practice anyway.
The founders of JHUSM realized that to establish itself as a serious academic discipline, medical education would have to be modelled on a post-graduate curriculum that was already in use in German medical schools. JHUSM only accepted persons who had achieved an undergraduate degree with an emphasis on basic science and passed a rigorous entrance examination. It also hired a full-time faculty made up almost exclusively of research doctors. It also developed the practice of having students deal directly with patients, rather than just sitting in on lectures. It was also the first medical school in the United States to admit women.
By 1910, a survey of medical schools came to the conclusion that only five in the entire United States provided an adequate medical education - JHUSM and four other schools that had followed its model.
Hopkins faculty have been enormously well regarded. Many other universities founded their medical faculties by essentially raiding Hopkins' staff. The school boasts no fewer than fourteen Nobel Prize winners.