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The anion gap is the difference in the measured cations (positively charged ions) and the measured anions (negatively charged ions) in serum, plasma, or urine. The magnitude of this difference (i.e., "gap") in the serum is often calculated in medicine when attempting to identify the cause of metabolic acidosis, a lower than normal pH in the blood. If the gap is greater than normal, then high anion gap metabolic acidosis is diagnosed.