Hemolytic anemia is an anemia caused by the red blood cells breaking down in the body (rather than not enough being created, or abnormalities in the blood cells). In addition to the other signs of anemia, hemolytic anemia is also characterized by jaundice without any other liver problems - the result of there being excess bilirubin in the bloodstream from the breakdown of the cells.
Hemolytic anemia can be caused by a genetic condition, a defect in the immune system, drugs or toxins. The exact etiology depends on the cause and can range from accelerated destruction of the cells, destruction of hemoglobin alone, or malfunctions in the bone marrow.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but immediate issues can be treated with a transfusion.