Elements of the scale Edit
|Eye||Does not open eyes||Opens eyes in response topainful stimuli||Opens eyes in response to voice||Opens eyes spontaneously||N/A||N/A|
|Verbal||Makes no sounds||Incomprehensible sounds||Utters inappropriate words||Confused, disoriented||Oriented, converses normally||N/A|
|Motor||Makes no movements||Extension to painful stimuli (decerebrate response)||Abnormal flexion to painful stimuli (decorticate response)||Flexion / Withdrawal to painful stimuli||Localizes painful stimuli||Obeys commands|
The scale is composed of three tests: eye, verbal and motor responses. The three values separately as well as their sum are considered. The lowest possible GCS (the sum) is 3 (deepcoma or death), while the highest is 15 (fully awake person).
Generally, brain injury is classified as:
- Severe, with GCS < 8-9
- Moderate, GCS 8 or 9–12 (controversial)
- Minor, GCS ≥ 13."