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Demyelination is the loss of the sheath of myelin, a substance made of a mix of fats and proteins that coat each of the body's nerves. The lack of myelin interferes with the body's ability to transmit nerve impulses as the charge in the nerve will leak out of the nerve axon along its length rather than at its ends.
Demyelination can be seen under a microscope as the myelin has a distinctive color different from that of the nerves.
Demyelination should be suspected if the patient has bluriness in the central field of one eye, double vision, loss of vision, loss of hearing, peripheral neuropathy, weakness in the arms or legs, speech impairment, memory loss, heat sensitivity (including worsening symptoms when hot), loss of dexterity, problems with co-ordination or balance, incontinence and fatigue.