Cystoscopy is an endoscopic procedure where the scope is inserted into the uethra to examine the urinary tract and the bladder and to guide surgical tools to repair issues in the tract. They come in several different diameters and can be used on both pediatric patients and adults.

Cytoscopes can be rigid or flexible. In most cases, a local anesthetic can be used for a flexible cytoscope, but the use of a rigid cytoscope usually requires general anesthesia, particularly in males.

Cytoscopy is usually used in cases of urinary tract infection, when blood is found in the urine, where there is incontinence or poor bladder control, when unusual cells are found in a urine sample, when urination is painful, when the patient has chronic pain in the pelvis, where there is a urinary blockage (such as caused by an enlarged prostate), when a kidney stone is blocking the urethra, and when there is sign of any unusual growth in the urinary tract.

Cystoscopy at Wikipedia

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