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bronchoscopy is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that uses a probe to examine and treat the airways of a patient.  It is usually performed by entering the airways through the mouth, but on occasion it is performed through the hole used for a tracheotomy.  In addition to using a scope to examine the airways, the procedure can also be used to take a biopsy of tissue.

As a therapeutic procedure, it is most often used to remove foreign objects from the airways.  A rigid scope is usually used for this procedure due to the greater ease of controlling it.  For an investigative bronchoscopy, a flexible scope is usually preferred because it is longer and thinner, allowing greater penetration with less discomfort to the patient.  

Bronchoscopy at Wikipedia

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