Brachytherapy is any form of radiation therapy  where a contained radioactive source is placed in proximity to the disease site. It is most commonly used to treat cancer of the cervix and prostate but is also used on many other forms of cancerous tumors.

Brachytherapy has the same side effects as other forms of radiation therapy, but it's benefits for deep seated tumors are that the overall radiation exposure to the patient is lessened because radiation is neither dispersed through the body nor is other healthy tissue in the way of external radiation. In addition, higher doses of radiation can be used in a shorter period of time which often results in the treatment time being reduced. Moreover, the outcomes are similar to the use of surgery or other forms of radiation therapy.

Brachytherapy at Wikipedia

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