An acanthocyte or spur cell is an abnormal red blood cell characterized by spiky projections in its cell membrane. They occur in patients with several different conditions including liver disease, anorexia nervosa, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, an enlarged spleen and chronic granulomatous disease.
The immediate cause of the spiky cell membrane is malformations of the proteins or fats that form the membrane.
Acanthocyte at Wikipedia
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